The Treatment Process

Brief Description of the Incineration process:

  • In these units, combustion operations are carried out in two separate chambers. 

  • The primary chamber accepts the waste, and the combustion process is begun. Three processes occur in the primary chamber. 

  • First, the moisture in the waste is evaporated. 

  • Second, the volatile fraction of the waste is volatilized, and the volatilized gases are directed to the secondary chamber. 

  • Third, the nonvolatile combustible portion (fixed carbon) of the waste is burned.

  • The typical operating temperature range for primary chambers is 650°C to 760°C

  • Combustion gases containing the volatile combustible materials from the primary chamber are directed to the secondary chamber.

  • Here the gases are burned with excess air, and at least one auxiliary fuel burner is used, as necessary, to maintain temperatures. 

  • Typical operating temperatures for secondary chambers range from 870°C to 1100°C 

  • Combustion gases from the secondary chamber are then vented through the stack to the atmosphere.

Incinerators

Medical waste incineration is the process of burning specific wastes, including pathological, trace chemotherapy and non-hazardous pharmaceutical wastes as it is considered the safest, most effective means of treatment and prevents harm to the environment and our health in general. There are alternatives to incineration including autoclaving, chemical treatments, or ozone disinfection, but these technologies are admittedly incapable of completely destroying certain medical wastes, such as pharmaceuticals and specific pathological wastes. 

 

These facilities can be also used to burn dead animals, cigarettes, chemical wastes, other hazardous wastes and much more. 

 

With advancements in medical treatment technologies and increases in regulations for proper waste management the amount of medical waste resulting from healthcare is expected to increase. Medical waste and the need for incineration is an outcome of the advanced healthcare system from which we all benefit. Stericycle provides a valuable and necessary behind-the-scenes service that protects our communities from harmful pathogens and chemicals, thereby supporting the continuity and reliability of healthcare into the future.

Viqa Recycling has 4 incinerators at our facility which has a processing capacity of 15 ton / day with the following specification.

Chilled Storage Containers

Viqa Recycling's facility has chilled containers for the storage of medical waste and other hazardous waste which has to be stored in a controlled environment away from exposed heat before processing the waste through the incinerators.

Medical Waste Treatment

Medical waste is all waste material generated from health care facilities such as: hospitals, clinics, physician's offices, dental practices, blood banks, veterinary hospitals/ clinics, as well as medical research facilities and laboratories.

Examples of Medical Waste:

  • Blood-soaked bandages

  • Culture dishes and other glassware

  • Discarded surgical gloves

  • Discarded surgical instruments

  • Discarded needles used to give shots or draw blood (e.g., medical sharps)

  • Cultures, stocks, swabs used to inoculate cultures

  • Removed body organs (e.g., tonsils, appendices, limbs)

  • Discarded lancets

  • Expired Pharmaceuticals and Medicaments 

Treatment by incineration and re-use of the resultant fly ash by creating strengthened cement, is the best solution for managing medical waste. 

 

Chemical Waste Management

Expired Materials:

If a chemical bottle has an expiration date that has passed, and that chemical cannot be used when it’s expired, then it is a waste.

Extraneous Materials:

If the process or experiment for which a chemical is used is no longer practiced, and that chemical will not be used for another purpose, that chemical is a waste.

Chemical waste is a waste that is made from harmful chemicals (mostly produced by large factories). A chemical hazardous waste is a solid, liquid, or gaseous material that displays either a “Hazardous Characteristic” or is specifically “listed” by name as a hazardous waste. There are four characteristics chemical wastes may have to be considered as hazardous. These are Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity, and Toxicity.

Treatment of the Chemical Waste: 

The hazardous component must be destroyed, rendered harmless, have toxicity reduced to acceptable levels, or be disposed of in a secure facility. Chemical treatment processes may be used to alter chemical properties of wastes in order to facilitate or enable further treatment; to render the wastes nontoxic/nonhazardous for disposal; or to solidify or stabilize the wastes for ease of handling or reduced leachability or to render them as non-degradable.

The general categories of chemical treatment include:

  • Acid/base neutralization

  • Chemical precipitation 

  • Oxidation/reduction (redox)

  • Solidification/stabilization

  • Electrolysis, hydrolysis

  • Chemical extraction and leaching 

Neutralization Treatment for acid/base Chemical waste

  • Neutralization is a widely used chemical process in which the pH of an acidic, corrosive, or caustic wastewater or gas is adjusted to a more neutral range. Neutralization may be employed as a pretreatment step or final treatment process. Methods of neutralizing acidic wastes include.

  • Adding appropriate amounts of strong or weak base to the waste.

  • Passing acidic waste through limestone beds 

Destruction of Hazardous Wastes by Thermal Processes

  • Organic compounds can be destroyed by well-designed and properly operated high temperature processes. 

  • Hazardous waste incinerators (adding an oxidizing agent to the process) gives excellent destruction efficiencies and, after scrubbing of the exhaust, leave only nontoxic gases to be discharged into the atmosphere.

  • Inorganic residues of ash and scrubber sludge to be landfilled; and salt water to be injected in deep wells, evaporated, or diluted and discharged.

  • Incinerator designs which can effectively destroy organic gases, liquids, or solids are available and in use.